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What Is Acupunture And How Does It Work?

Imagine a world where pain relief doesn’t come from a pill bottle but from the precise insertion of tiny needles. This ancient practice, known as acupuncture, has been a cornerstone of traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, offering a holistic approach to health and wellness.

Brief Overview Of Acupuncture

intro about acupunture

Acupuncture is more than just a treatment; it is a holistic approach that aims to balance the body’s energy, known as “chi.” By inserting fine stainless-steel needles into specific points along the body’s meridians, acupuncture seeks to correct imbalances and promote natural healing.

Historical Background And Origins

history of acupunture

Originating in China over 2,500 years ago, acupuncture has evolved into a well-respected and widely practiced form of medicine around the world. The ancient Chinese believed that health is achieved through a balance of the complementary extremes of “yin” and “yang” of the life force known as “chi.” This life force is thought to flow through pathways (meridians) in the body. Acupuncture aims to restore the flow of chi and thereby improve health.

Understanding Acupuncture

Concept Of Chi And Energy Meridians

At the heart of acupuncture is the concept of “chi” (also spelled “qi”), which is considered the vital life force that flows through the body. According to traditional Chinese medicine, chi travels through pathways called meridians, which are linked to specific organs and bodily functions. When chi flows freely, the body is in balance and health is maintained. However, blockages or imbalances in this flow can lead to illness and discomfort.

Role Of Acupuncture In Traditional Chinese Medicine

Acupuncture aims to restore the balance of chi by stimulating specific points on the body, known as acupuncture points or acupoints. These points are strategically located along the meridians. By inserting fine needles into these acupoints, practitioners believe they can unblock and balance the flow of chi, thereby alleviating pain and treating various health conditions.

Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a range of practices including acupuncture, herbal medicine, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy. Acupuncture is often used in conjunction with these other practices to enhance overall well-being and treat a variety of conditions.

Conditions Treated By Acupunture

Acupuncture is recognized for its ability to address a wide range of health conditions. While it is best known for its effectiveness in pain management, research and clinical practice have demonstrated its potential benefits for various other conditions as well.

Chronic Pain Management

Acupuncture is particularly effective in managing chronic pain, which affects millions of people worldwide. Studies suggest that it can be an effective treatment for:

lower back pain


Acupuncture can reduce joint pain and improve function in individuals with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Low Back Pain

A significant number of people suffering from chronic low back pain report relief after acupuncture treatments.

Neck Pain

Acupuncture can help alleviate chronic neck pain, improving mobility and reducing discomfort.

Muscle Pain

It is effective in treating myofascial pain and muscle spasms.

Post-Surgical Pain

Patients often use acupuncture as part of their post-operative care to reduce pain and enhance recovery.

Other Potentially Treatable Conditions

Research and clinical evidence have shown that acupuncture may be beneficial for:

  • Dental Pain: Acupuncture can reduce pain and anxiety during and after dental procedures.
  • Fibromyalgia: Many patients report a decrease in pain and an improvement in quality of life.
  • Nausea from Chemotherapy: Acupuncture is commonly used to reduce nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy treatments.

Emerging Evidence for Other Conditions

While more research is needed, acupuncture shows promise in treating



Some studies indicate that acupuncture can reduce the frequency and intensity of migraines and tension headaches.

Pain from Shingles

Acupuncture may help alleviate the pain and discomfort associated with shingles.

Facial Pain

Conditions such as trigeminal neuralgia can be managed with acupuncture.

Smoking Cessation Aid

Acupuncture may help some individuals quit smoking by reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms.

Statistics on Effectiveness

  • Chronic Pain Relief: A meta-analysis published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that acupuncture is effective for chronic pain, with approximately 50% of patients experiencing significant relief.
  • Post-Surgical Pain: According to a study in the British Journal of Anaesthesia, acupuncture reduced post-surgical pain by 30% compared to standard care.
  • Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea: Research published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology found that acupuncture reduced the severity of nausea in 70% of patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Safety and Efficacy

Importance Of Consulting A Doctor

Before starting acupuncture, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare provider, especially if you have a chronic or serious illness. A doctor can help determine whether acupuncture is appropriate for your condition and how it can be integrated into your overall treatment plan. While acupuncture can be highly beneficial, it may not be suitable as a standalone treatment for certain conditions and should be combined with other medical care, such as medication or physical therapy.

Integrating Acupuncture with
Conventional Treatments

naturopathy medicine

For conditions like cancer, acupuncture is often used as a complementary therapy alongside conventional treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. It can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life, but it should not replace standard medical treatments. The combined approach ensures that patients receive the full spectrum of care needed for their condition.

Safety Measures And Sterile Techniques

Safety Measures And
Sterile Techniques

Acupuncture is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified practitioner who uses sterile, disposable needles. This minimizes the risk of infection and other complications. The following safety measures are typically observed:

  • Use of Disposable Needles: Acupuncturists use single-use, pre-sterilized needles to prevent the risk of infection.
  • Clean and Sterile Environment: Treatment rooms and equipment are kept clean and sanitized.
  • Qualified Practitioners: Ensure that your acupuncturist is licensed and has received proper training from an accredited institution.

Minimizing Complications


When acupuncture is performed under these conditions, complications are rare. However, some potential risks include:

  • Minor Bleeding or Bruising: Occasional minor bleeding or bruising at the needle insertion sites.
  • Temporary Soreness: Mild soreness or discomfort after a session, which usually resolves quickly.
  • Dizziness: Some individuals may feel lightheaded or dizzy after a session, especially if they are sensitive to needle insertions.

What to Expect During a Session

Role of the Acupuncturist

The person administering your treatment is known as an acupuncturist. These practitioners are trained in the principles of traditional Chinese medicine and the precise techniques of needle insertion. During your first visit, the acupuncturist will take a detailed health history and may perform a physical examination to understand your condition better.

Needle Insertion Process and Techniques


Before inserting the needles, the acupuncturist will swab each insertion area with alcohol to ensure it's clean and sterile.


The acupuncturist will then tap very thin needles into specific points on your body. The number of needles used, their placement, and the depth of insertion depend on your particular condition and treatment goals.


  • Adjustments: The acupuncturist may adjust the needles to enhance their effect.
  • Warming: Sometimes, needles may be warmed to stimulate the points more effectively.
  • Electrical Stimulation: In some cases, the needles are connected to a mild electrical current to intensify the treatment. This technique is known as electroacupuncture.

Role of the Acupuncturist

The needles typically remain in place for several minutes to an hour, depending on your treatment plan. You might feel various sensations, such as tingling, heaviness, or warmth, which are normal and indicate that the treatment is working.

  • Tingling Sensation: If electrical stimulation is used, you may feel a mild tingling sensation. This should be comfortable, and you can ask the acupuncturist to adjust the intensity if it becomes too strong.
  • Relaxation: Many patients feel deeply relaxed during and after the session, which can contribute to the overall therapeutic effect.

Post-Treatment Experience

After the session, you might feel very relaxed and even somewhat tired. It’s a good idea to plan some rest time following your appointment. Some people experience immediate relief, while for others, the benefits may become apparent after a few sessions.

Experience and Sensations

Pain and Discomfort Levels

One of the common concerns about acupuncture is whether it hurts. Generally, acupuncture is not painful. Here’s what you can expect:

doing acupunture


You might feel a slight prick when the needle is inserted, but this sensation is much less intense than the prick of a hypodermic needle because acupuncture needles are much thinner.

During Treatment

Once the needles are in place, you may experience various sensations such as heaviness, numbness, tingling, or mild soreness around the insertion sites. These sensations are usually mild and indicate that the treatment is stimulating the acupoints effectively.

Potential Sensations


A common sensation is a feeling of heaviness or pressure around the needle sites, which can spread to other parts of the body. This heaviness is often described as a therapeutic feeling.


Some patients report a numbness or tingling sensation, which is usually mild and temporary.


A mild tingling sensation may occur, especially if electrical stimulation is used. This should be comfortable and can be adjusted if it becomes too intense.

Mild Soreness

After the needles are removed, you might feel mild soreness at the insertion points. This soreness typically fades quickly.

Benefits of These Sensations

These sensations are generally positive signs that the treatment is engaging the body’s energy pathways and stimulating a therapeutic response. They are part of the process through which acupuncture promotes healing and pain relief.

What to Do if You Experience Discomfort?

If at any point during your session you feel uncomfortable or the sensations are too intense, you should communicate this to your acupuncturist. They can make adjustments to the needles or the level of stimulation to ensure you are comfortable.

Related Conditions

Acupuncture is not only used for the conditions mentioned earlier but can also be helpful in treating a variety of other health issues. One such condition is tenosynovitis.

Overview of Tenosynovitis

Tenosynovitis is the inflammation of the sheath that surrounds a tendon. This condition can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected joint. It commonly occurs in the hands, wrists, and feet, but can affect other parts of the body as well.


How Acupuncture Can Help

Acupuncture can be an effective complementary treatment for tenosynovitis by:

  • Reducing Inflammation: By stimulating specific acupoints, acupuncture can help reduce inflammation in the affected tendon sheath.
  • Alleviating Pain: The treatment can promote the release of endorphins and other natural pain-relieving chemicals, reducing the discomfort associated with tenosynovitis.
  • Improving Mobility: Acupuncture can enhance blood flow and reduce muscle tension around the affected area, improving joint mobility and function.

Integrating Acupuncture with Other Treatments

For tenosynovitis, acupuncture is often used in combination with other treatments such as physical therapy, rest, and anti-inflammatory medications. This integrated approach can provide comprehensive relief and facilitate faster recovery.

Safety and Risks

Ensuring Safety with Qualified Practitioners

Acupuncture is considered safe when performed by a licensed and well-trained practitioner. To ensure your treatment is safe, follow these guidelines:

Minimizing Complications

When proper procedures are followed, complications from acupuncture are rare. However, potential risks include:

Is Acupunture Safe?

Yes, acupuncture is safe when performed by a qualified practitioner using sterile needles under clean, sterile conditions. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates acupuncture needles as medical devices and ensures they meet specific standards for sterility and labeling.

Potential Contraindications

Certain conditions may require caution or special considerations when undergoing acupuncture:

  • Bleeding Disorders: Individuals with bleeding disorders or those taking blood thinners should inform their acupuncturist, as they may be at higher risk for bleeding or bruising.
  • Pregnancy: Some acupuncture points are contraindicated during pregnancy, so it’s essential to inform your acupuncturist if you are pregnant.
  • Pacemakers: If you have a pacemaker, inform your acupuncturist, especially if they plan to use electrical stimulation.

By following these safety measures and working with a qualified practitioner, the risks associated with acupuncture can be minimized, making it a safe and effective treatment option for many individuals.

Advantages of Acupuncture

Acupuncture offers several benefits that make it a valuable treatment option for many individuals seeking alternative or complementary therapies.

holistic care


One of the most significant advantages of acupuncture is that it provides a drug-free method of pain relief. This is particularly beneficial for individuals who prefer to avoid or cannot tolerate the side effects of pain medications.

  • Non-Addictive: Unlike some pain medications, acupuncture does not carry the risk of addiction.
  • Fewer Side Effects: Acupuncture has fewer and milder side effects compared to many pharmaceutical treatments.


During an acupuncture session, the acupuncturist can immediately observe your response to the treatment and make any necessary adjustments to enhance its effectiveness.

  • Personalized Treatment: The acupuncturist tailors each session to your specific needs and symptoms.
  • On-the-Spot Adjustments: Needles can be adjusted, added, or removed based on your feedback during the session.


Acupuncture promotes overall wellness by addressing the underlying imbalances in the body rather than just treating symptoms. This holistic approach can lead to improvements in various aspects of health, including:

  • Stress Reduction: Acupuncture can help reduce stress and anxiety by promoting relaxation and balancing the body's energy.
  • Improved Sleep: Many individuals report better sleep quality after acupuncture treatments.
  • Enhanced Immune Function: By restoring balance, acupuncture may boost the immune system and improve resistance to illness.


Acupuncture is widely accepted within the medical community as a complementary therapy. Its recognition and regulation provide reassurance about its safety and efficacy.

  • Licensed Practitioners: In the U.S., there are about 28,000 licensed acupuncturists who have undergone rigorous training.
  • FDA Regulation: The FDA classifies acupuncture needles as medical devices and ensures they meet strict standards for sterility and safety.


With the growing acceptance of acupuncture, many insurance companies now offer coverage for acupuncture treatments. It's advisable to check with your health insurance provider to determine if your policy includes acupuncture.

  • Widespread Availability: Acupuncture is available in many healthcare settings, including hospitals, clinics, and private practices.
  • Insurance Coverage: Some health insurance plans cover acupuncture, making it more accessible and affordable for patients.

Acceptance by Medical Establishment

Licensing and Regulation in the U.S

Acupuncture has gained significant acceptance and regulation within the medical community, particularly in the United States. This acceptance is reflected in the licensing and certification processes for practitioners.

To practice acupuncture in the U.S., practitioners must obtain a license. This typically requires completing a program from an accredited acupuncture school and passing a national certification exam.

The National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM) is the main certifying body in the U.S. It ensures that practitioners meet high standards of competence and professionalism.

FDA Recognition of Acupuncture Needles

Acupuncture has gained significant acceptance and regulation within the medical community, particularly in the United States. This acceptance is reflected in the licensing and certification processes for practitioners.

The FDA classifies acupuncture needles as medical devices, subjecting them to rigorous standards for sterility and labeling.

By regulating acupuncture needles, the FDA helps to ensure that they are sterile and safe, reducing the risk of infection and other complications.

Research and Clinical Studies

Numerous research studies and clinical trials have explored the effectiveness of acupuncture, contributing to its acceptance in the medical community.

Studies published in reputable medical journals have demonstrated acupuncture’s effectiveness in treating various conditions, including chronic pain, nausea, and headaches.

Continued research efforts are aimed at understanding the mechanisms of acupuncture and expanding its applications in healthcare.

Integration into Healthcare Systems

Many healthcare systems and institutions have integrated acupuncture into their services, recognizing its value as a complementary therapy.

Acupuncture is offered in many hospitals and clinics, often as part of integrative medicine programs that combine conventional and complementary therapies.

Physicians and healthcare providers frequently refer patients to licensed acupuncturists as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

Insurance Coverage and Accessibility

The growing acceptance of acupuncture is also reflected in its inclusion in many health insurance plans.

Some health insurance policies cover acupuncture treatments, making it more accessible to a broader range of patients.

With insurance coverage, patients can benefit from acupuncture without the burden of high out-of-pocket costs.

Insurance and Coverage

Checking Health Insurance Policies

Before starting acupuncture treatment, it is important to check whether your health insurance policy covers it. Coverage can vary widely between different insurance plans and providers.

medical insurance

Review Your Policy

Carefully read your insurance policy documents or contact your insurance provider to understand the specifics of your coverage.

Ask Specific Questions

Inquire about the extent of coverage, including the number of sessions allowed, any co-pays or deductibles, and whether you need a referral from a primary care physician.

Coverage for Acupuncture Treatments

Many insurance companies recognize the benefits of acupuncture and offer coverage for it, especially for conditions like chronic pain and nausea.

Chronic Pain Management

Acupuncture for chronic pain conditions, such as arthritis or back pain, is often covered by insurance.

Post-Surgical and Cancer Treatment Support

Insurance may cover acupuncture for managing post-surgical pain and nausea related to chemotherapy.

Variability in Coverage

The specifics of acupuncture coverage can vary based on your insurance provider and plan.

Private Insurance Plans

Many private health insurance plans offer acupuncture coverage as part of their complementary or alternative medicine benefits.

Medicare And Medicaid

Coverage for acupuncture under Medicare and Medicaid is more limited, often restricted to specific conditions like chronic low back pain.

Employer-Sponsored Plans

Some employer-sponsored health insurance plans may include acupuncture coverage as part of their wellness programs.

Out-of-Pocket Costs

out of pocket costs

If your insurance does not cover acupuncture or covers only part of the cost, you will need to consider out-of-pocket expenses.

Session Fees

The cost per acupuncture session can vary based on the practitioner’s experience and location. On average, a session can range from $50 to $300.

Package Deals

Some acupuncturists offer package deals for multiple sessions, which can reduce the overall cost. Ask your provider if they offer discounts if you book multiple sessions.

Flexible Spending Accounts (FSA) and
Health Savings Accounts (HSA)

You may be able to use funds from an FSA or HSA to pay for acupuncture, even if it is not covered by your insurance.

Frequency of Treatments

Determining Treatment Schedule

The frequency of acupuncture treatments depends on various factors, including the condition being treated, its severity, and how your body responds to the therapy. Your acupuncturist will develop a personalized treatment plan based on these factors.

  • Initial Intensive Phase: For acute conditions or severe symptoms, treatments may be more frequent initially, such as 1-3 times per week.
  • Maintenance Phase: As symptoms improve, the frequency of treatments may decrease to once a week or once every two weeks.
  • Long-Term Management: For chronic conditions or preventive care, ongoing treatments may be scheduled monthly or seasonally.

Expected Number of Sessions

While some individuals may experience immediate relief after the first session, others may require multiple sessions to see significant improvements. Generally, a course of treatment can range from 5 to 10 sessions, but this varies based on individual needs.

  • Acute Conditions: Acute issues, such as recent injuries or sudden pain flare-ups, might resolve with fewer sessions.
  • Chronic Conditions: Chronic conditions, like arthritis or long-term back pain, typically require a longer course of treatment to achieve lasting results.

Monitoring Progress

Regular assessment of your progress is an essential part of the treatment plan. Your acupuncturist will monitor your response to the therapy and adjust the frequency and techniques as needed.

  • Symptom Tracking: Keeping a journal of your symptoms and any changes you notice can help your acupuncturist fine-tune your treatment.
  • Feedback and Adjustments: Communicating openly with your acupuncturist about your experiences allows for real-time adjustments to enhance the effectiveness of the treatment.

Tailoring Treatment to Individual Needs

Acupuncture is highly individualized, and the number of sessions and treatment frequency are tailored to each person’s unique situation.

  • Personalized Care: Your acupuncturist will consider your overall health, lifestyle, and specific health goals when determining your treatment schedule.
  • Flexible Approach: The plan can be adjusted based on your progress and any new health developments that arise.

Post-Treatment Considerations


After an acupuncture session, it is common to feel deeply relaxed and sometimes a bit tired. To maximize the benefits of your treatment, consider the following post-session care tips:

  • Rest: Plan to take it easy for the rest of the day. Avoid strenuous activities or heavy exercise immediately after your session.
  • Hydration: Drink plenty of water to help flush out any toxins released during the treatment.
  • Avoid Stimulants: Refrain from consuming caffeine or alcohol after your session, as these can counteract the calming effects of acupuncture.


Acupuncture is often used in conjunction with other treatments, including medications prescribed by your doctor. It's essential to continue taking your medications as directed and to discuss any changes in your treatment plan with your healthcare provider.

  • Integration with Medical Treatments: Acupuncture can complement your existing medical treatments, but it should not replace them without professional guidance.
  • Consult Your Doctor: Always consult your doctor before making any changes to your medication regimen.


Pay attention to how your body responds in the days following an acupuncture session. This can help you and your acupuncturist adjust future treatments for optimal results.

  • Symptom Changes: Note any improvements or changes in your symptoms, as well as any new sensations or discomforts.
  • Communicate with Your Acupuncturist: Share your observations with your acupuncturist during your next visit to refine your treatment plan.


While some people experience immediate relief after acupuncture, others may need several sessions to notice significant improvements. Be patient and give your body time to respond to the treatment.

  • Gradual Improvements: Understand that healing is a process, and gradual improvements are a positive sign of progress.
  • Consistent Treatment: Adhering to your treatment schedule and following your acupuncturist's recommendations can enhance the effectiveness of the therapy.


In addition to attending your acupuncture sessions, consider incorporating other healthy habits into your routine to support your overall well-being.

  • Balanced Diet: Eat a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  • Regular Exercise: Engage in regular physical activity that suits your fitness level and health condition.
  • Stress Management: Practice stress management techniques such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises.

Summary of Benefits and Considerations

Acupuncture offers a holistic approach to health and wellness, addressing a variety of conditions through the stimulation of specific points on the body. Its benefits include:

Encouragement to Consult Healthcare Providers

While acupuncture can be highly beneficial, it’s important to consult with healthcare providers before starting treatment, especially if you have a serious or chronic condition. This ensures that acupuncture is part of a comprehensive and coordinated care plan.

Final Thoughts

Acupuncture is a time-honored practice that has evolved to become a respected component of modern healthcare. By understanding its principles, benefits, and safety measures, you can make informed decisions about incorporating acupuncture into your health regimen.

FAQs About Acupunture


Acupuncture is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that involves inserting very fine needles into specific points on the body to balance the flow of energy, or "chi," along pathways known as meridians. It is believed to stimulate the body's natural healing processes and promote overall wellness.


No, Acupuncture typically does not hurt. You may feel a slight prick when the needle is inserted, but it is much less than the prick of a hypodermic needle. Common sensations include a feeling of heaviness, numbness, tingling, or mild soreness.


Acupuncture is used to treat a variety of conditions, including:

  • Chronic pain (e.g., arthritis, back pain, neck pain)
  • Post-surgical pain
  • Dental pain
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Nausea from chemotherapy
  • Emerging evidence supports its use for headaches, pain from shingles, facial pain, and smoking cessation.


Yes, acupuncture is safe when performed by a qualified practitioner using sterile, disposable needles. The FDA regulates acupuncture needles as medical devices, ensuring they meet strict standards for sterility and safety.


The number of sessions required varies based on the condition being treated and how your body responds to the therapy. Acute conditions may resolve with fewer sessions, while chronic conditions typically require a longer course of treatment, often ranging from 5 to 10 sessions.


Some health insurance plans cover acupuncture treatments, particularly for chronic pain and nausea. It's important to check with your insurance provider to understand the specifics of your coverage, including any required referrals, co-pays, or session limits.


Yes, you should take it easy after an acupuncture session. Here are some post-treatment considerations:

  • Relaxation: Plan to rest and avoid strenuous activities.
  • Hydration: Drink plenty of water to help your body flush out toxins.
  • Avoid Stimulants: Refrain from consuming caffeine or alcohol immediately after your session.
  • Observe and Monitor: Pay attention to how your body responds and communicate any changes or concerns with your acupuncturist.

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doctor koffler

Article Written By

Richard Koffler, MD

NPI Number- 1467557264
  • Dr. Koffler is a Physiatrist, specializing in Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation.
  • Graduated from the Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv University in 1993 Dr. Koffler completed a one-year internship in internal medicine at Roosevelt Hospital in New York City.
  • Residency in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the Rusk Institute at NYU Medical Center in New York City. Board certified in 1998.
  • Trained in acupuncture at Helms Medical Institute at UCLA His medical practice incorporates proven conventional western medicine integrating eastern alternative practices.
  • Medical Director of several medical clinics in NYC, Stamford CT, and Miami Beach, FL.
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